Nowadays there are not any medications or eye drops which could eliminate cataract and improve vision. A surgical procedure is the only option for restoring vision. In this type of procedure opaque intraocular lens is removed and substituted by artificial lens.
Many people suffer from sight related problems and certain refractive disorder is the most common cause of deteriorated vision. Nowadays, there are many ways of correcting such disorders. Today, wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses is very common. But try to imagine that you take part in some more active and more contact involving sport and suddenly wearing eyeglasses is not an option anymore.
The photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a laser procedure used to correct a low and intermediate short-sightedness and astigmatism. In some special cases it could be used also to correct a higher shortsightedness. The method of PRK refractive eye surgery was used for the first time in 1987 in Western Berlin. When correcting shortsightedness by laser we have to remove the central area of the stroma and this leads to a desired change in the incurvation of the cornea by photoablation with the help of excimer laser. This enables to focus the rays of light again on the retina. When correcting astigmatism, the laser balances irregular incurvation of the cornea by removing the tissue. The procedure is carried out only after the removal of epithelium of the cornea.
The method of cutting the cornea with diamond knives has been used from 1970. LASIK method (laser in situ Keratomileusis), which was developed by professor Pallikaris in Crete, is one of many other surgical procedures used to correct refractive disorders. It is a modern excimer laser method. Historical roots of laser surgery LASIK go back to 1949 to Barraquer´s Keratomileusis based on which in 1966 Ruiz developed the method of automatic lamellar keratectomy (ALK). With the help of microkeratome he created a regular lamella on the surface of the cornea. Then after he uncovered it he performed second incision deeper into the stromal parts of the cornea which lead to desired flattening of the cornea.
LASEK is a laser procedure used to correct short sightedness, long sightedness and astigmatism. It is relatively a new method that combines benefits of LASIK method and PRK method. The biggest advantage of this procedure is its non-invasive character without any incision made in the corneal tissue and its simple technique. It is an ideal procedure for people who have a cornea that is too thin or too flat.
Excimer laser is the most technologically advanced surgical tool to treat refractive errors that has revolutionized vision correction surgery. This remarkably precise ultraviolet laser creates invisible pulses of light that remove microscopic amounts of corneal tissue. Controlled by customized software, a computer calculates the number of laser shots required to achieve a patient's targeted refraction.